Are Chakras New Age?, by David Stewart, PhD
Originally Posted October – November – December Winter 2013
1. ARE CHAKRAS NEW AGE?
~^~^ by David Stewart, PhD
Chakras are not “New Age.” They are Old Age being rediscovered. They are mentioned in both the Old and New Testaments of the Bible. The Jews even have a symbolic representation for the seven Chakras in their Menorah of seven candles, the center one representing the heart chakra. (For a good reference on chakras and the menorah in the Old Testament, see reference at the end of this article.)
The first thing to understand is that we all possess an electromagnetic field in which our physical bodies are immersed. Even the medical and biological professions acknowledge that human beings have, not only a physical body of flesh and fluids, but also a subtle electromagnetic field upon which their physical body is superimposed.
Physicians measure your electromagnetic (EM) field to detect problems with your heart and brain by means of EKGs (Electrocardiograms) and EEGs (Electroencephalograms), but they don’t understand, nor utilize, the connections of our EM bodies to our physical bodies in a way to provide pathways to healing. They don’t understand that physical maladies, conditions, and sicknesses usually show up as irregularities in our EM field before they manifest physically. They are unaware of the connection between our minds and feelings to our electromagnetic field and how the condition of the EM Field affectsour physical well-being.
CHAKRAS AS ORGANS OF OUR EM FIELD
Chakras are electromagnetic centers along the spine of our EM fields. They are the dynamic, functional organs of our EM body, which is a template that causes our physical bodies to materialize and manifest as it does. It is also through the EM Field that our physical bodies are energized and are enabled to maintain a healthy state directly from God’s consciousness. The Bible says, in both Old and New Testaments, “Man shall not live by bread, alone, but by every word that proceedeth out of the mouth of God.” Deut 8:3 and Matt 4:4. The phrase, “By every word…” is in reference to God’s constant and continuous vibrational energy that emanates from Him constantly, which permeates the universe omnipresently, and which maintains us as living, conscious beings. If God’s constant attention on his created worlds flickered, even for one second, the universe and everything in it, including us, would vanish. Psalm 121:3-4
It is that subtle EM field, a living spark of Gods consciousness, that ignites the life of a new human being at conception, that provides the pattern for the union of a sperm and an egg from a man and a woman to assemble into a complete body, molecule by molecule, cell by cell, into a completely ordered physical form. Without the electromagnetic blueprint enshrouding the developing fetus in the womb, the dividing cells would not know into which organs to differentiate and arrange themselves to form a complete, functional living body. Without the electromagnetic body, we would have no physical body. When we die from this physical form, we become aware of our EM body, which is a body of light and energy. Our bodies of light are usually not seen by us when we are living in the physical plane encased in flesh, but our etheric body becomes quite visible to us when we discard our material frame at death.
WHERE LONG TERM MEMORY IS LOCATED
Some people call our electromagnetic body our “astral body,” our “ethereal body,” our “spiritual body,” or our “heavenly body.” A part of it can sometimes be seen as a golden “halo” around the heads or upper-bodies of spiritual people. We use and employ that energetic body constantly and daily, even though few people are consciously aware of it. That is where our long term memory is stored which we take with us at death when the physical brain and body cease to function and decay. When we die, we lose our physical brain. But we will know and recognize our friends and relatives in the after-life. So how can we remember and recognize our loved ones in the world hereafter if our long-term memory were tied to a physical brain, which we will no longer have.
Our short term memory is in our physical brain, which is our hard drive, but our long term memory is in the “subtle cloud” around us which we can access when living in our physical bodies like a computer accesses the ambient universe of the internet. But when we shake the mortal frame and become aware of our energy bodies, we don’t need a physical instrument (a brain) to access our etheric memory because we are living as energy in a cloud of energy, no longer bound by physical limitations.
The fact that short-term memory is in the cerebral matter of the physical brain, while our long-term memory is stored in our electric field that survives death, explains why elderly people will can often recall memories of long ago, even in their childhoods, but may not be able to remember what happened yesterday, or even five minutes ago. While their short-term memory is not working well because their physical brain may have aged somewhat and lost function, the long-term memory in their EM field is fully intact. As people age and approach their final days or years, they may gradually grow more in attunement with their etheric body and gain increasing access their permanent memories, which have been stored electronically as energy. As one detaches one’s self from the physical body, they usually gain greater access to their energetic body and the memories stored there.
ESSENTIAL ORGANS OF YOUR EM ANATOMY
The principal functional organs of your etheric body are the seven “chakras,” as they are called in Sanskrit in India. But the word, “chakra” in Sanskrit simply means “wheel.” This is appropriate since the chakras are all circular in appearance and contain geometric shapes and colors in their detail that could be likened to petals of a flower, spokes of a wheel, or points of a star. I prefer to call them “electromagnetic centers,” which are to our heavenly body what the various ganglionic centers are to our physical body. They are intelligent switching, coordinating, and routing centers for our electromagnetic (EM) bodies and perform functions that keep our physical bodies functioning in contact with God’s vital life force.
Chakras are simply a part of our electromagnetic physiology. We all have chakras or we wouldn’t be alive. To be fearful of the word “chakra,” or to be afraid to explore what they are and how they are a part of every human being, is like being afraid of your navel or your toe nails. They are essential features of your energetic anatomy. Everyone has a set of seven chakras, be they Christian, Muslim, Jew, Buddhist, Hindu, Athiest, or whatever. Some religious systems recognize them and understand their spiritual implications and some don’t. But they are still there for everyone. The more you know and understand what they really are, the closer you can draw to God, whose essence is spirit.
For example, in countries where the Eastern Orthodox Christian Church is prevalent, the chairs in the alter area of the church are narrow and have armrests that are high. When visiting one of these churches in Romania a few years ago I was told that the high arm rests are for the priests to rest their elbows so they can close off their ears with their thumbs, shutting off physical outside sounds, in order to more easily hear the sounds of the chakras and commune with the Holy Spirit. They call it “sound meditation.” I also noticed that outside on the front of the church was a pair of columns with a spiral design, one going clockwise and one going counterclockwise. It was explained to me that these are representations of the spiritual currents that go up and down the astral spine during meditation. So the Eastern Orthodox Catholics understand about chakras and the electromagnetic body, and realize that recognizing and understand how the etheric body functions aids them in deepening their communion with God.
In Raindrop Technique, we drop essential oils about six inches above the spine so they can interact with the electromagnetic field in a positive and therapeutic manner for the benefit of the receiver. Your elecgtromagnetic field extends a few inches away from your body and the healthier you are the further away it can extend. As we move the bottles of Raindrop oils up or down the spine, while the oil drops fall one by one like raindrops, we are actually interacting with the chakras and boosting their beneficial functions. We don’t have to know that, or think about it, when we are performing a Raindrop, but that is what we are doing, whether we realize it or not and whether one believes in chakras or not.
Your EM body is alive and everybody has one. God made us all that way. Adam and Eve had EM bodies. All the people in the Bible had such bodies. Jesus and his disciples had such bodies. In pictures of Jesus and the saints, artists often include a golden glow around their heads and, sometimes, around their whole bodies. Sensitive people, like artists, can sometimes actually see the glow of a person’s aura about them. I have often seen such light myself, when I am in the presence of a spiritually inclined individual or when I am with someone who is praying, preaching, or expressing their love for God or Christ.
Your electromagnetic field is simply a part of your human physiology. Many people can see the energy bodies around others. Perhaps you have seen them yourself and weren’t sure what you were witnessing. Many can also hear the sounds made by the chakras from their own bodies (which I do). Just as you can hear the sounds of your physical organs like your heart beating, your lungs breathing, or your digestive tract pushing through its contents, so sensitive people can hear the sounds of their astral bodies working.
HEEDING WARNING LIGHTS VS TURNING THEM OFF
When you hear these subtle sounds, you aren’t hearing them with your physical ears, although it may seem so. You are hearing them with your astral ears. Even people deaf to physical sound can hear these subtle vibrations. When your energetic body is healthy and you are calm and a person of faith, hearing such sounds is soothing and spiritually uplifting. They are most easily heard when praying or meditating deeply. When such sounds are heard as an unpleasant distraction that interferes with one’s physical hearing, it is an indication that some functions of your electromagnetic body are out of adjustment and need attention. In these instances, the hearing of such sounds is referred to as “tinnitus.”
The medical profession does not understand the origin of astral sounds and think they are due to physical causes that need to be treated in some physical way. Actually, perceiving the sounds of your etheric body as something unpleasant is like a warning light on your dash board that means something is amiss with your car that needs attention. You can turn off the annoying light by disconnecting it from behind the dash board, or you can heed its message and add oil, fill the gas tank, charge the battery, or whatever, etc. Not understanding the nature of sounds emanating from your electromagnetic body diagnosed as tinnitus, the usual doctor’s prescription is analogous to disconnecting the warning bulb behind your dash instead of understanding and heeding the message it is meant to convey.
People hear the sounds made by their physical body, but most don’t see or hear the subtle functioning of their astral body. And if they do, it is not with their physical eyes or ears, although it may seem so. They hear or see them with their astral or etheric eyes and ears. Being able to see or hear such subtle manifestations of God’s creation means you are not completely attached to the physical world, or to your material body. In a state of hearing or seeing your electromagnetic form, you are partially in awareness and in tune with God’s heavenly universe, which is just behind this material world. When we meditate or pray deeply with the physical body still and quiet, to the degree that we are calm, focused, and conscious, we can become aware of the etheric universe. Psalm 46:10 tells us to: “Be still and know that I am God.” It is in an inner cave of silence that we hear God’s “still small voice.” I Kings 19:12.
In the Jewish and Old Testament religion, the seven chakras are symbolized by the menorah of seven candles. The seven chakras are located in the spine from tailbone at the base to the atlas at the back of the head and are variously designated, from bottom to top, as: 1. Root or Coccygeal Chakra, 2. Creative or Sacral Chakra, 3. Solar Plexus or Lumbar Chakra, 4. Heart, Thoracic, or Dorsal Chakra, 5. Throat, Neck, or Cervical Chakra, 6. Medullary or Third Eye Chakra, and 7. The Crown Chakra or “Thousand-Petaled Lotus.” All of these can be seen by anyone who is tuned in with their inner vision. Through the ages and into the present time, thousands of first-hand witnesses have seen and described them, and their descriptions concur. They are within each and every one of us to see and confirm.
IF THINE EYE BE SINGLE
During the Sermon on the Mount, Jesus made the cryptic comment, “If therefore thine eye be single, thy whole body shall be full of light.” Matt. 6:22. People that pray or focus on God or Christ deeply automatically find themselves turning their eyes upward, closed or unclosed, with a single focus at the point between the eyebrows. This is often referred to as “The Third Eye.” If you focus thus with devotion and attunement with God and Christ, you will see a light there and, in fact, you can eventually see that your whole body is “full of light.” With sustained, calm concentration you will see each of the seven chakras and their shapes and designs. While they are multicolored, each chakra has a dominant color starting with the root chakra, which is Red. The sacral chakra is Orange. The solar plexis chakra is Yellow. The heart is Green. The cervical is Blue. The medullary center is Indigo, and the crown chakra is Violet, but the crown is also seen as shimmering White or Silver. Note that the fundamental colorsof the chakras are in ascending frequencies from the base of the spine to the top of the head, the lowest (red) at the bottom and the highest (violet) at the atlas with White (the combination of all frequencies) at the top of the head.
The medical profession recognizes that people can see lights with closed eyes focused at the forehead. They even have a physiological term for the round or spherical images you may see there. They call them “phospheres” because of their phospheresent spherical appearances. They normally explain such inner apparitions as “residual images on the retina.” Sometimes that is what they are, residual retinal images, like when you briefly look at the sun and then close your eyes to see a bright yellow circle, a residual solar image. But in a state of inner calmness, and with focused sustained attention, countless people have seen very definite, specific images which have been clearly described and identified with each of the seven chakras.
The chakra at the base of the skull or medulla, is reflected forward to the forehead at the point between the eyebrows, over your pineal gland in the brain. Your pineal gland is the physical seat of your intuition and spiritual vision. When you see the chakra at the Third Eye location in your forehead, it has the appearance of a golden yellow ring, with a dark blue background inside, and a perfect five-pointed white star in the middle. With focused calm attention, in a mood of prayer and communication with God, Christ, or the Holy Spirit, you can see it yourself. Anyone can learn to see it.
The reflection of the chakra seen by focusing on the third eye in the forehead is sometimes called “The Christ Center.” In Eastern Theology, they assign cardinal directions to the body. The forehead of our body is called “The East.” The “Star of Bethlehem,” which led the Wise Men to the baby Jesus, is almost always depicted as a five-pointed white star. Such a star can be seen by anyone with devotion for God or Christ by gazing with eyes, uplifted and closed, focused at the point between the eyebrows. Following such a star, as seen in the East within yourself, will lead you to the Christ within you and to the realization of God’s image, in which you are made. Once you see that star with eyes closed, you may begin seeing it with your eyes open as well, at the same point between your eyebrows.
THE SOUNDS OF THE CHAKRAS
Besides seeing the various chakras in your body of light, you can hear them, too. Each has a distinctive sound just as the workings of your heart, lungs, and digestion have distinctive sounds.
The root chakra is like the sound of a field of locusts or insects humming or the buzzing of a bumble bee. The sound of the sacral chakra is like the continuous tone of a flute. Your solar plexus chakra, opposite your navel, is like that of humming harp stringsafter they have been plucked. Your heart center sounds like the tone of a bell or gong, the way it continues to vibrate after it has been struck. Your throat chakra has a sound like rushing waters, like a brook crashing continuously down a mountainside. Your medullary center emits a sound from behind your head like the roar of the ocean, like continuous rolling thunder, or like a combination of all of the sounds, which can also sound like the continuous blare of a trumpet.
It is hard to ascribe physical descriptions to each of the sounds of the chakras because they are not physical, and neither are they heard by your physical ears. So when you hear them yourself, as I do, with your ethereal senses, you can make up your own description. Neither do the colors perceived in the chakras correspond exactly to those we see in the spectrum of physical light.
Hearing all of these sounds individually, or on concert, is not a trivial experience. You are attuning to your spiritual body and the Holy Ghost within when you hear them. You are actually increasing your nearness and atunment to God, Christ, and the Holy Spirit. People immersed in Spirit, in deep prayer, or communion with God hear these sounds and learn to discern God’s voice in them, teaching, purifying, and edifying them.
THE COMFORTER WILL TEACH YOU ALL THINGS
In John 14:16-17, 26, Jesus taught his disciples that when he physically leaves this earth, “God will give you another Comforter, that he may abide with you forever. Even the Spirit of truth. . .” and that “The Comforter, which is the Holy Ghost, whom the Father will send in my name, He shall teach you all things, . . .” The word, “comforter” is used for English translations because there is no English word for the Greek, “paraklitos,” which could have been translated as several other things, including “vibration” or “sound.” As for me, I can personally testify that this sound from beyond the physical world does contain God’s teaching voice and will fill your heart and mind with true knowledge and wisdom. I know because I have written my books from the directions I receive from that Holy Comforter.
In Revelation 1:10-15, John says, “I was in the Spirit on the Lord’s day and heard behind me a great voice, as of a trumpet . . . And I turned to see . . . and being turned, I saw seven golden candlesticks; And in the midst of the seven candlesticks one like unto the Son of man . . .and his voice as the sound of many waters.” And again, in Rev 14:2 John reports, “And I heard a voice from heaven, as the voice of many waters; and as the voice of a great thunder; and I heard the voice of harpers harping with their harps.” And once more in Rev 19:5-6, “And a voice came out of the throne . . . as the voice of many waters, and as the voice of mighty thunderings . . .” In Ezekiel’s visions, he heard the voice of God “ like a noise of many waters…” Ezekiel 1:24 & 43:2
The descriptions of God’s voice given in Revelation and Ezekiel are very close to what you actually hear. I hear that voice of “many waters and mighty thunderings” constantly every day, and have for years when I pray and meditate and ask for Divine wisdom and guidance. I have long come to recognize that God does, in fact, speak by such a voice and pours his knowledge and wisdom into your mind and heart, filling you with the Holy Spirit in the process. When John said he “heard a great voice, as of a trumpet,” I know that voice. I have heard it and continue to hear it. When John said the voice was “behind me,” I know he was referring to his spine behind him, because that is the location of the spiritual centers in our ethereal bodies. And when he said “I was in the Spirit,” he meant he was so focused on God’s spirit within him, that he was not aware of the physical world around him, but was totally focused on God’s presence within. “Behold, the kingdom of God is within you.” Luke 17:21.
This roaring and thundering sound, to be heard within each and all of us, associated with the medullary chakra and third eye, has been named by various religions and scriptures as the “Amen,” “Amine,” “Aum,” “Om,” etc. When first experienced within you, it may seem only like a sound, but in time you will realize that all languages, all knowledge, and all wisdom are buried in that sound because it is the combination of every frequency in the universe. If you focus on it, become absorbed in it, resonate with it, and pray for attunement with God’s vibrations, His instructions, guidance, wisdom and knowledge till clarify themselves in your heart and mind, literally “teaching you all things.” John 14:26 It is this form of prayer and meditation that has been practiced by Christians of the Eastern Orthodox Faith for many centuries.
Being immersed in concentration on this subtle, inner rumbling roar in a state of prayer is like soaking in God’spresence or being immersed in the sea of the Holy Spirit. Being wholly engrossed in silent communion with God’s voicemanifesting as the comforting “sound of many waters,” is a form of “soaking prayer” through which comes much knowledge,wisdom, faith, love, and joy—all of which are aspects of God’s nature. When you resonate with that sound, you areexpressing the consciousness of Christ. This is what Eastern Orthodox priests experience in what they call “SoundMedication.” You can experience it, too. It is God’s wish that you do.
PROVE ALL THINGS
No one has to believe anything I am saying. The Bible says to “Prove all things.” I Thessalonians 5:21 Nothing in what I have written here needs verification by an outside source, like a book, a priest, a theological authority, a church, a religion, an expert, a teacher, or anything or anyone else that is external. Everything I have said is within you and within every human being to seek and verify themselves, inside of themselves. Chakras can be seen and understood by anyone with the courage and faith to seek the Holy Spirit, communicate with “The Comforter,” and experience the teaching voice of Christ while praying for God’s understanding with the sound of the Great Amen. All of what I have said is self-verifiable by your own inner attunement with God within you.
To communicate clearly with God there can be no fear. There must be no prejudice or expectation. There must be only love and trust. “There is no fear in love; but perfect love casteth out fear.” I John 4:18 One must receive one’s perceptions of the spirit without doubt, accepting and believing in what you experience as being real. As soon as the doubting intellect gets in to question, you lose your ability to see truth and reality directly. Not seeing chakras or the lights of your ethereal body, and not experiencing them personally, is not proof of their non-existence. Not experiencing the lights of one’s EM body is proof only of one’s lack of perception, which only remains to be developed. One’s spiritual eyes and ears can be opened. Spiritual vision can be acquired and developed. It is our spiritual assignment from God Himself, that we learn to perceive Him as He is and manifest His likeness in our own lives.
What I perceive by my own spiritual sensitivities cannot be transferred to another, but can be understood by others whose spiritual and extra-physical experiences mirror my own. To them, what I say will make perfect sense, because it confirms and corresponds to their own perceptions. As Jesus said repeatedly, knowing that many in the crowds to whom he spoke had not the level of spiritual development to comprehend his message, “He that hath ears to hear, let him hear.” Matt 11:15; 13:9; Mark 4:23; 7:16; Luke 8:8; 14:35.
WHAT IS NEW AGE?
Are Chakras “New Age?” Is Raindrop Technique “New Age?” Are Essential Oils “New Age?” If you have been using and promoting therapeutic grade essential oils for some time, you have probably encountered questions like these and have, maybe, wondered yourself. Without knowledge and understanding, these questions become barriers and stumbling blocks to sincere people who want to use and learn about essential oils, but need to know that they are of God.
But what is New Age? There are many definitions, and many who use the term cannot clearly define what they mean by it. It is usually a term used by people, applied to topics or practices they do not understand and which they fear may lead them spiritually astray. The whole idea of “New Age” somehow being a threat to valid Christian teachings, or to true spiritual principles of any faith, comes from fear and misunderstanding.
Not that wrong teachings, harmful ideas, misleading beliefs, or evil Satanic forces don’t exist and are not out there to mislead and harm us. They are out there. They do exist. And they can harm us. But Psalm 23 tells us that even “though I walk through the valley of the shadow of death, I will fear no evil, for Thou art with me . . .” The key to overcoming unnecessary fear is knowing that God is constantly with you and within you. Stay fearlessly close to God in your heart and mind, and you will know what is truth and what is not. Truth is not necessarily what your religion teaches or what your priest or pastor says. It is a certain knowing from within that comes directly from Christ and the Holy Ghost that will “teach you all things, and bring all things to your remembrance.” John 14:26
EXERCISING SPIRITUAL CAUTION
One should be spiritually cautious in what beliefs and practices one embraces or rejects. But this needs to be an exercise of caution out of confidence, faith, and love, not from hesitancy, fear, and faulty understanding. It is true that some things lumped into the category of “New Age” are, in fact, areas that should be avoided for one’s own spiritual integrity and safety. However, to discern between what is of God and what is not, requires a heart of love and a spirit of trust and faith. There can be no fear involved, for fear corrupts one’s perception and causes one to mistake the Godly for the Ungodly and vice versa. If you are confused about things like “chakras” and want to know God’s truth, you must put yourself into a state of calmness, inner peace, and love, devoid of fear and doubt.
Recognizing truth is not an intellectual function of the mind, but a feeling function of the heart in a state of peace. When you are concentrated on the inner “stillness” within yourself, then you will know the truth, and the truth shall make you free. Psalm 46:10 & John 8:32 When the voice of God came to Elijah in a desert cave, he came as “a still small voice.” When we call unto the Lord for counsel, we are instructed to “Commune with your heart upon your bedside, and be still.” Psalm 4:4
WHAT TO SAY TO THOSE CONCERNED ABOUT “NEW AGE”
The next time someone suggests that essential oils, and/or the way we apply them for healing purposes, is to be avoided because it is “New Age,” ask them to define New Age. If they give you their definition, ask them how it applies to healing applications of essential oils. Ask them if they realize that essential oils are scripturally based, that Moses, Jesus, and his disciples employed them so they are nothing “New.” If they bring up terms like “chakras” or “astral body,” etc., tell them that these terms are merely referring to your electromagnetic field, a feature of our anatomy and physiology that everyone has. They are part of the electro-magneto-mechanical body that God created for all human beings to have. It is up to us to gain an understanding of our subtle field, and make use of it beneficially for healing as, for example, the manner in which we interact with the field of the EM body during Raindrop Technique.
If those, who pose questions about “New Age,” “have ears to hear,” they will listen, consider what you have said, and submit it to their heart for proof. If they “do not have ears to hear,” then pursue the topic no further and move on, like Jesus and his disciples did. Spend your efforts in a search to engage with those of sufficient faith and spiritual understanding to grasp the truth.
SPREADING THE GOOD NEWS ABOUT OILS
Jesus’ advice to his disciples for their ministry, given in Mark 6:10-11, was to travel to many places, interact with many people, and abide with those who are receptive to the message and who invite you to stay with them. But Jesus went on to say, “whosoever shall not receive you, nor hear you,” depart thence and go elsewhere to find others who will hear you and your Gospel.
Jesus never instructed his followers to argue or attempt to convince people of his message. He and his disciples publicized, but never tried to “sell,” their Good News. Jesus’ instructions were to state the truths of the Gospel and allow people to take it or leave it, constantly traveling and searching to find those who were ready to receive. Essential oils, like Christ’s Gospel, can only be shared as the Divine blessings they are,allowing people to take them or leave them, but continuing to move on in the search for those who are receptive andready.
What I have discussed above are matters that mostly have to be discovered or realized on your own, through prayer and inner contemplation, and by the actual hearing of God’s voice, and the actual seeing of God’s light within, through the practice of personal stillness. You may not like or agree with what I have said in this article, and that is all right. Take what you can use at this stage of your need and ignore the rest.
When Jesus spoke to the crowds in parables, some listeners got His point and understood His deepest implications, while others only got part of His message, the parts most useful for them at that stage in their life. Still others got very little from his words or rejected them wholesale, while some were even offended, angered and upset. Jesus did not try to persuade those who doubted or who misunderstood his meanings. He just loved them and moved on to find those who were receptive and ready for his gospel.The same approach applies to promoting essential oils.
For additional information on chakras, and the menorah representation of them in Judaism, see the book, Scriptural Essence: Temple Secrets Revealed, by Janet McBride. (ISBN 978-1-933324-59-3)
Janet is a Messianic Jew who reads and understands Hebrew. She has uncovered many things from the Old Testament and other authoratative Jewish writings not generally known to the public, many of which date back 6,000 years. I highly recommend her scholarly, well researched, book. The cover of her book displays a drawing of the heart chakra with a green six-pointed star in the middle, as it has been seen by many throughout the millennia.
Copies are available at www.janetmcbride.com as an ebook you can download for $10.